Rb sr dating wikipedia
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The resonant element in atomic clocks utilizes the hyperfine structure of rubidium's energy levels, and rubidium is useful for high-precision timing.It is used as the main component of secondary frequency references (rubidium oscillators) in cell site transmitters and other electronic transmitting, networking, and test equipment.
The quality of this research in the 1860s can be appraised by the fact that their determined density differs less than 0.1 g/cm Rubidium has also been considered for use in a thermoelectric generator using the magnetohydrodynamic principle, where rubidium ions are formed by heat at high temperature and passed through a magnetic field.
Hence, the Rb/Sr ratio in residual magma may increase over time, and the progressing differentiation results in rocks with elevated Rb/Sr ratios.
The highest ratios (10 or more) occur in pegmatites.
Because rubidium substitutes for potassium in the crystallization of magma, the enrichment is far less effective than that of caesium.
Zone pegmatite ore bodies containing mineable quantities of caesium as pollucite or the lithium minerals lepidolite are also a source for rubidium as a by-product.
German chemists Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff discovered rubidium in 1861 by the newly developed technique, flame spectroscopy.
Rubidium's compounds have various chemical and electronic applications.
For several years in the 1950s and 1960s, a by-product of potassium production called Alkarb was a main source for rubidium.
Alkarb contained 21% rubidium, with the rest being potassium and a small amount of caesium.
Rb, is one of the most commonly used atomic species employed for laser cooling and Bose–Einstein condensation.
Its desirable features for this application include the ready availability of inexpensive diode laser light at the relevant wavelength, and the moderate temperatures required to obtain substantial vapor pressures.
Rubidium was discovered in 1861 by Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff, in Heidelberg, Germany, in the mineral lepidolite through spectroscopy.